When Does Hit and Run Become a Felony? Know The Legal Consequences

person lying on the ground after a car accident

The question “Is hit and run a felony?” is one that many find themselves asking in the wake of an accident. Understanding the potential legal consequences is crucial, as the severity of the charge can vary significantly based on certain factors. This article will delve into the circumstances that can elevate a hit-and-run incident to felony status, providing an in-depth understanding of the legal implications.

What Constitutes a Hit-and-Run?

A hit-and-run accident, as the name suggests, involves a driver causing a vehicular accident and leaving the scene without identifying themselves or offering assistance to the injured. It’s an unlawful act with severe legal consequences, ranging from fines and license suspension to imprisonment. However, whether a hit-and-run is classified as a felony or a misdemeanor depends on the specific circumstances of the incident.

In most jurisdictions, a hit-and-run becomes a felony involving serious injury, death, or substantial property damage. When a driver flees the scene without providing their information or rendering aid to an injured party — if they are capable and safe, they can be charged with a felony. The severity of the felony charge can vary based on the extent of the damage or injury caused by the accident.

Regardless of the circumstances, fleeing the scene of an accident is not only illegal but also ethically wrong. As responsible citizens, you must assist in the aftermath of an accident, even if you are at fault. Legal repercussions aside, acknowledging our actions and showing empathy towards the victims reflects basic human decency.

Civil vs. Criminal Liability

When considering the aftermath of a hit-and-run incident, it’s important to understand the difference between civil and criminal liabilities. This section will delve into the distinct consequences and responsibilities of these two forms of liability in the context of hit-and-run accidents.

Civil Liability

In a hit-and-run accident, civil liability pertains to the perpetrator’s financial responsibility for the damages caused. This includes but is not limited to, medical expenses, loss of income, property damage, and pain and suffering endured by the victims. The victims or their families can pursue a civil lawsuit against the responsible party to claim compensation for the damages mentioned above.

It’s important to note that civil liability is separate from criminal liability. A defendant can be found not guilty in a criminal trial, but still, be held financially responsible in a civil case. This is because the burden of proof is lower in civil cases (‘preponderance of the evidence’ as compared to ‘beyond a reasonable doubt’ in criminal cases).

Furthermore, an individual’s insurance policy may cover some aspects of civil liability. However, insurance companies often have policies that prevent them from covering damages if the insured party is involved in illegal activities, such as fleeing the scene of an accident. Therefore, the defendant could still be held personally liable for the damages.

Conversely, if the defendant is uninsured or underinsured, the victims may have to rely on their insurance policies, if available, or face the unfortunate possibility of uncompensated loss. Thus, understanding civil liability is crucial for both parties involved in a hit-and-run accident.

Criminal Liability

Criminal liability is the second form of responsibility after a hit-and-run. It refers to the legal consequences imposed by the state for the perpetrator’s unlawful actions. In a hit-and-run, these actions typically involve causing an accident and fleeing the scene without providing necessary information or assistance. The penalties range from fines and probation to incarceration, depending on the severity of the accident and the jurisdiction’s laws.

If a hit-and-run causes significant property damage, severe injury, or death, the driver can be charged with a felony. The severity of the charge and penalties depend on the harm caused. For example, a hit-and-run resulting in a minor injury may lead to a lesser felony charge and lighter penalties than a hit-and-run causing a fatality.

The defendant’s criminal record, if any, can also influence charges and penalties. Repeat offenders may face harsher consequences. Determining and proving criminal liability involves an investigation by law enforcement and a legal process.

Understanding potential criminal liability is crucial after a hit-and-run. Seeking legal counsel can help navigate the complex terrain and reduce the consequences. Taking responsibility and showing empathy towards the victims is ethical and can impact how a court perceives your actions.

Is Hit and Run a Felony?

Whether a hit and run is a felony depends on the accident’s jurisdiction and specifics. Generally, minor property damage may be treated as a misdemeanor, while significant damage, injury, or death is likely classified as a felony. Felonies carry more severe penalties, including longer prison sentences and larger fines.

The main factor determining felony charges is the harm caused by the accident. If someone is injured or killed, the person who fled the scene may face felony charges, showing disregard for others’ wellbeing.

Even without injuries or deaths, a hit-and-run can still be a felony if it causes significant property damage. The threshold for ‘significant’ damage varies, but if the repair cost exceeds a certain amount, it may be classified as a felony.

Understanding the legal consequences is crucial as they can significantly impact one’s life. A felony conviction can affect employment, housing, and voting rights. Seek legal counsel immediately to understand your rights and potential consequences if involved in a hit-and-run.

Felony Hit and Run: When Does It Apply?

Felony hit-and-run pertains to instances where the accident results in significant damage, severe bodily injury, or death, and the driver still chooses to flee the scene. This section will clarify when a hit-and-run escalates to a felony, the potential legal penalties for such a crime, and the importance of seeking legal representation in such scenarios.

Circumstances that Escalate Hit and Run to a Felony

While different jurisdictions may have varying specificities, there are common factors that typically escalate a hit-and-run incident to a felony. These include:

  1. Serious Bodily Injury or Death: One of the primary circumstances that can escalate a hit-and-run to a felony is the infliction of serious bodily injury or death. If a driver flees the scene of an accident where another person has been critically injured or killed, they can be charged with felony hit-and-run. The definition of ‘serious injury’ can vary. Still, it typically includes conditions that pose a risk to life or cause permanent disfigurement or loss or impairment of a body part or organ.
  2. Significant Property Damage: A hit-and-run incident can also be classified as a felony if it results in significant property damage. While the threshold for ‘significant’ damage may vary by jurisdiction, it often pertains to repair costs exceeding a set monetary value.
  3. Repeat Offenses: In some jurisdictions, repeat offenses can elevate a hit-and-run to a felony, irrespective of the extent of injury or damage. If a person has previously been convicted of a hit-and-run or other serious traffic offenses, any subsequent hit-and-run incident may automatically be considered a felony.

State Laws and Variation in Penalties

It’s important to note that the specific laws and penalties associated with felony hit-and-run incidents vary considerably from one state to another. Some states impose more severe penalties than others, reflecting differences in how these offenses are perceived and handled legally.

The variation in state laws also extends to other aspects of the penalties, such as the duration of license suspension and the conditions for reinstatement, required restitution to victims, and the impact on insurance premiums.

Additionally, some states have mandatory minimum sentences for felony hit-and-run convictions, which means the judge must impose at least the minimum sentence. However, they have the discretion to impose a higher sentence. Other states may have more leeway in sentencing, allowing judges to consider mitigating factors that might reduce the severity of the penalties.

Given these significant variations in state laws, anyone involved in a hit-and-run incident must consult a lawyer well-versed in the state’s specific laws where the incident occurred. A knowledgeable attorney can provide valuable guidance in understanding the potential charges and penalties and developing the most effective legal strategy.

Criminal Penalties for Felony Hit and Run

A felony hit-and-run conviction brings significant criminal penalties, largely dependent on the jurisdiction and specific circumstances of the incident. These potential penalties often include substantial fines, incarceration, probation, and license suspension or revocation.


Fines are a common penalty for felony hit-and-run convictions. The range for these monetary penalties varies widely across jurisdictions. However, defendants should expect fines to be in the thousands of dollars at minimum, potentially escalating to tens of thousands for particularly serious incidents.


Incarceration is another serious consequence of a felony hit-and-run conviction. The length of the prison sentence often depends on the severity of the accident and the harm caused. In cases involving severe bodily injury or death, defendants may face several years of imprisonment. Repeat offenders are also likely to receive longer sentences.


Probation is a period of supervised release that allows offenders to serve their sentences outside prison under certain conditions. Conditions of probation often include:

  • Reporting to a probation officer.
  • Maintaining employment.
  • Avoiding further legal trouble.
  • Fulfilling other obligations as ordered by the court.

Violating these conditions may result in the probation being revoked, leading to immediate imprisonment.

License Suspension or Revocation

In many jurisdictions, a felony hit-and-run conviction can result in suspending or revoking the offender’s driving license. The length of the suspension varies, but it could last several years or even be permanent in severe cases or for repeat offenders. To regain driving privileges, individuals must often meet certain conditions, such as completing a driving safety course or demonstrating financial responsibility.

Facing these potential penalties underscores the seriousness of a felony hit-and-run charge. If you find yourself in these circumstances, seeking legal counsel immediately to understand your rights, the potential charges against you, and the best course of action moving forward is crucial.

Civil Consequences

Apart from criminal penalties, a felony hit-and-run conviction also entails significant civil consequences. The victims, or their families, can pursue a civil lawsuit for damages against the perpetrator. These damages can include compensation for medical expenses, lost wages, property damage, and pain and suffering. In cases of severe injury or death, the damages can amount to hundreds of thousands or even millions of dollars.

In addition, if the defendant had automobile insurance at the time of the accident, their insurance premiums are likely to increase substantially. Some insurance companies may even drop coverage entirely for individuals convicted of such serious offenses. This can lead to significant difficulties in obtaining affordable insurance in the future.

Another potential civil consequence is a lien on personal property or wage garnishment. If a court awards damages to the victim and the defendant cannot pay, it may place a lien on the defendant’s property or garnish their wages to satisfy the judgment. This can have long-term financial implications and severely impact the defendant’s quality of life.

A hit-and-run conviction can also result in a negative credit report. Unpaid court fines and judgments can be reported to credit bureaus, potentially damaging the individual’s credit score. This can make it difficult to secure loans, housing, or even certain jobs that require credit checks.

Finally, in some states, a felony hit-and-run conviction can lead to the loss of certain civil rights, such as the right to vote or possess a firearm, especially if the individual serves a prison sentence.

Mitigating Factors in Hit and Run Cases

Various factors can influence the severity of penalties in hit-and-run cases, potentially resulting in reduced charges or sentences. This section highlights these mitigating factors and explores how they might apply legally.

Legal Representation in Hit and Run Cases

Securing skilled legal representation is paramount when facing a hit-and-run charge. A seasoned attorney can guide the defendant through the intricate legal process, ensuring their rights are protected at every stage. An attorney can help in various ways, including:

  1. Understanding the Law: Hit-and-run laws can be complex and vary significantly by jurisdiction. A good attorney will be well-versed in the state’s specific laws where the accident occurred, ensuring the defendant fully understands the charges they face.
  2. Investigation and Evidence Gathering: An attorney will thoroughly investigate the incident, gathering evidence that could be crucial for the defendant’s case. This may involve reconstructing the accident scene, interviewing witnesses, and reviewing police reports and medical records.
  3. Negotiating Plea Bargains: In some cases, an attorney may be able to negotiate a plea bargain with the prosecutor. This could result in reduced charges or penalties, potentially sparing the defendant from a felony conviction.
  4. Representation at Trial: If the case goes to trial, an attorney will advocate on the defendant’s behalf, presenting evidence and arguing the case in the best possible light to seek a favorable outcome.
  5. Post-Trial Proceedings: After a trial, an attorney can assist with appeals or negotiate terms of probation, restitution, or other aspects of sentencing.

Facing a hit-and-run charge is a serious matter with potentially life-altering consequences. Having the right legal representation can significantly affect the case’s eventual outcome, potentially saving the defendant from severe penalties and helping them navigate the challenging journey ahead.

Role of Insurance in Mitigation

Insurance plays a significant role in mitigating the consequences of a hit-and-run accident. The right coverage can provide financial protection, covering the costs of property damage, bodily injuries, and potential lawsuits. Here’s how:

  1. Liability Insurance: This coverage, required by law in most states, pays for the other party’s medical bills and property damage if you’re at fault in an accident. It can also cover legal fees if the victim decides to sue.
  2. Collision Insurance: Collision coverage pays for repairs to your vehicle, regardless of who’s at fault in the accident. Collision insurance can cover the repair costs if your car gets seriously damaged in a hit-and-run.
  3. Uninsured Motorist Coverage: This coverage comes into play when the driver at fault in an accident doesn’t have insurance, or in the event of a hit-and-run where the driver remains unidentified. Uninsured motorist coverage can cover your medical bills, lost wages, and other damages.
  4. Personal Injury Protection (PIP): Also known as “no-fault” insurance, PIP covers your medical expenses, lost wages, and other out-of-pocket costs, regardless of who’s at fault in an accident.

While insurance can provide financial protection, it’s also worth noting that a hit-and-run conviction can lead to higher insurance premiums. If you’re convicted of a hit-and-run, your insurer may consider you a high-risk driver and raise your rates accordingly. In severe cases, the insurance company may choose not to renew your policy.

The Impact of Turning Oneself In

Individuals may consider turning themselves in to the authorities when involved in a hit-and-run, especially if they were not initially identified. This decision can significantly impact the case outcome. Surrendering promptly and showing remorse can be seen favorably by the court, potentially affecting sentencing.

Cooperating with law enforcement allows individuals to provide their account of the incident, but seeking legal guidance is important to avoid self-incrimination. It’s crucial to note that turning oneself in doesn’t absolve legal consequences, especially for severe injuries or fatalities. Consulting with an attorney is essential to navigate the process and protect rights.

The Effect of A Clean Driving Record

An individual’s driving record is significant in hit-and-run legal proceedings. A clean record can be a mitigating factor, influencing the court’s decision during sentencing. Demonstrating a safe and responsible driving history may suggest the incident as an anomaly rather than a pattern of recklessness.

It could lead to a more lenient sentence, including lower fines or a shorter probation period. A clean record can also benefit civil proceedings, reducing liability in damages cases. However, it’s important to note that a clean record does not absolve guilt. The severity of the incident and the harm caused will heavily influence consequences. Seek timely legal representation in serious matters.

Importance of Remaining on the Scene

Staying at the accident scene is a moral obligation and a legal requirement. Leaving the scene, especially when there are injuries or fatalities, can lead to serious criminal charges like hit-and-run. Respecting this law can save lives by ensuring prompt medical attention and preventing legal consequences.

Being present at the scene allows for accurate information exchange between parties, including insurance and contact details, crucial for insurance claims and legal proceedings. It also enables interaction with law enforcement officers who document the accident objectively and gather evidence, which can be vital in court.

Staying at the scene supports understanding accident dynamics, aiding in identifying contributing factors that can benefit legal defenses. It also allows for immediate clarification of any misunderstandings or inaccuracies about the incident.

However, staying doesn’t imply admitting guilt. Limit discussions to factual information exchange, avoiding speculative or emotional statements that may inadvertently admit liability. Formal discussions about the accident’s cause or fault should preferably involve legal counsel.

In essence, staying at the accident scene shows respect for the law, empathy for victims, and commitment to responsible conduct. It facilitates efficient resolution of insurance and legal aspects and is crucial for safe driving.


Understanding the severe consequences of hit-and-run incidents emphasizes responsible driving and adherence to traffic laws. These incidents can profoundly affect individuals, from criminal and civil penalties to increased insurance premiums and negative credit impacts.

Factors like legal representation, insurance coverage, and a clean driving record can influence the severity of consequences. Seeking professional legal advice before turning oneself in is crucial. Safe driving habits and staying at the scene of accidents remain the most effective prevention, protecting individuals and the community.

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